Chapter 1: Problem 12

State the name of the unit and the type of measurement indicated for each ofthe following quantities: a. \(0.8 \mathrm{~L}\) b. \(3.6 \mathrm{~cm}\) c. \(4 \mathrm{~kg}\) d. \(35 \mathrm{lb}\) e. \(373 \mathrm{~K}\)

### Short Answer

Expert verified

0.8 L is volume, 3.6 cm is length, 4 kg is mass, 35 lb is weight/mass, 373 K is temperature.

## Step by step solution

01

## Identify quantity in 0.8 L

The unit 'L' stands for liter, which is a unit of volume. Therefore, 0.8 L indicates a measurement of volume.

02

## Identify quantity in 3.6 cm

The unit 'cm' stands for centimeter, which is a unit of length. Therefore, 3.6 cm indicates a measurement of length.

03

## Identify quantity in 4 kg

The unit 'kg' stands for kilogram, which is a unit of mass. Therefore, 4 kg indicates a measurement of mass.

04

## Identify quantity in 35 lb

The unit 'lb' stands for pound, which is a unit of weight/mass. Therefore, 35 lb indicates a measurement of weight/mass.

05

## Identify quantity in 373 K

The unit 'K' stands for Kelvin, which is a unit of temperature. Therefore, 373 K indicates a measurement of temperature.

## Key Concepts

These are the key concepts you need to understand to accurately answer the question.

###### Volume Measurement

Volume measurement refers to the amount of space that a substance or object occupies. In chemistry, the liter (L) is a common unit used to measure volume. For instance, in the exercise, 0.8 L refers to a volume measurement. Understanding the concept of volume is crucial for various chemical experiments, especially when preparing solutions or mixing reagents. Volumes can also be expressed in milliliters (mL), where 1 L is equal to 1000 mL. Other units like cubic centimeters (cc or cm³) can also describe volume, especially for smaller quantities. Precise volume measurements ensure accurate results in chemical reactions.

###### Length Measurement

Length measurement determines the linear distance between two points. The centimeter (cm) is frequently used in chemical settings to measure the size of objects or distances. In the exercise, 3.6 cm is given as a length measurement. Length units can vary, including meters (m) for larger distances and millimeters (mm) for smaller ones - with 1 m equating to 100 cm and 1 cm equal to 10 mm. Accurate length measurements are vital for laboratory procedures such as measuring the dimensions of containers or the distance traveled by a substance during chromatography.

###### Mass Measurement

Mass measurement refers to the quantity of matter in an object, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or grams (g). In the provided exercise, 4 kg describes a mass measurement. Mass is distinct from weight, which is the force exerted by gravity on an object. Commonly, chemists use balances to determine mass, and it's critical for preparing chemical solutions, determining reaction yields, and calculating reagent quantities. Precision in mass measurement ensures reactions proceed as expected. For smaller amounts, mass can be measured in grams (1 kg = 1000 g), allowing for fine-tuned accuracy in experiments.

###### Weight Measurement

Weight measurement accounts for the force exerted by gravity on an object, commonly recorded in pounds (lb) or newtons (N). In the exercise, 35 lb indicates a weight measurement. While mass and weight are related, they are not interchangeable; weight varies depending on gravity, while mass remains constant. In chemistry, understanding weight is essential, especially when dealing with forces acting on substances or when converting between different units of force. For conversion, remember that 1 lb is approximately 4.448 N. Although mass is more frequently used in chemistry, knowing weight measurements underpins a comprehensive understanding of material properties.

###### Temperature Measurement

Temperature measurement is crucial in chemistry to understand how heat affects substances. The Kelvin (K) is the SI unit for temperature, shown in the exercise by 373 K. Temperature impacts reaction rates, solubility, and states of matter. Besides Kelvin, degrees Celsius (°C) and Fahrenheit (°F) are also used, with specific conversion formulas: \((K = °C + 273.15)\). Accurate temperature measurements ensure consistency in experimental conditions and reproducibility of results. Using thermometers or digital sensors, scientists can achieve precise temperature control, critical for both routine laboratory work and advanced research.

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